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Category:Engineering software companies1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to an image forming apparatus such as an electrophotographic copying machine or a printer and, more specifically, to an image forming apparatus in which there is used a photosensitive member having a photoconductive layer formed on a rotatable drum.
2. Description of the Related Art
An electrophotographic copying machine or printer conventionally comprises, in a body thereof, a photosensitive drum with a photoconductive layer formed on the outer periphery thereof. The body also has an image bearing member and a cleaning unit. The body further has an image forming unit which forms an electrostatic latent image on the photosensitive drum by uniformly charging the photosensitive drum and by exposing the charged photosensitive drum.
The image forming unit develops the electrostatic latent image by a predetermined development process. A developer is then fed to the photosensitive drum on which the electrostatic latent image has been developed and the developed image is transferred to a paper sheet. After that, the photosensitive drum is cleaned and a second image forming process is carried out.
The photosensitive drum can be cleaned by a cleaning unit such as a blade. The cleaning unit, however, has a defect in that a bad cleaning can occur when it is difficult to release the paper sheet from a transfer belt. On the other hand, there is proposed a cleaning system in which the photoconductive layer is removed by a cleaning brush or the like and the removed part of the photoconductive layer is again regenerated.
When the photoconductive layer of the photosensitive drum is removed by a brush or the like and the removed part of the photoc
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The present invention relates to a process for producing a carbonated beverage, more particularly to a process for producing a carbonated beverage, in which the production of carbon dioxide gas is conducted in one reactor, and the preparation of a carbonated beverage is performed in a subsequent reactor.
Recently, a new type of beverage has attracted attention, which is called «soft drink» in Europe, and has been widely distributed in Japan and other countries. These soft drinks are produced by an operation in which carbon dioxide gas is compressed, and the gas is injected into a water-based fluid to produce carbonated water.
A typical process for producing carbonated water is a batchwise process in which carbon dioxide gas is compressed in a pressure vessel, and the compressed carbon dioxide gas is fed into a liquid-liquid contactor to produce carbonated water, and an apparatus is incorporated with the liquid-liquid contactor.
In the batchwise process, carbon dioxide gas is compressed by a compressor, and the compressed gas is supplied to the liquid-liquid contactor by a pipe, and the contact operation between the compressed carbon dioxide gas and a water-based fluid is conducted in the liquid-liquid contactor.
Such a batchwise process is useful for producing carbonated water which needs no particular treatment, but is not sufficient for producing highly carbonated water which needs a very large amount of carbon dioxide gas.
An apparatus for supplying a large quantity of carbon dioxide gas is also not known. For example, in a system in which carbon dioxide gas is supplied by a pipe, which has been commonly used as an industrial process, it is very difficult to uniformly distribute the pipe in an apparatus which is sufficiently flexible to be installed in the apparatus.
There is known a method in which a reactor and a pressure vessel are stacked, and the compressed carbon dioxide gas is injected into the reactor through the lower end of the pressure vessel.
It is assumed that the carbon dioxide gas is injected through the lower end of the pressure vessel because a method for injecting a gas from the top of a vessel is difficult to apply to carbon dioxide gas.
This conventional method is effective, but has the following problems.
In the conventional method, the carbonated water is produced by a two-step batchwise operation in which carbon dioxide gas is compressed in a pressure vessel by a compressor, and the compressed gas is supplied to a reactor. Accordingly, an apparatus for producing carbonated water must comprise a pressure vessel and a compressor, both of which are